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Understanding Arduino operators

in Arduino Basics

An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical functions. The coding language that is used by Arduino is rich in built-in operators and provides the following types of operators

Arithmetic Operators

Operator name Operator SymbolDescription
assignment operator =Stores the value to the right of the equal sign in the variable to the left of the equal sign.
substraction-Subtracts second operand from the first
addition+Adds two operands
Devision/Divide numerator by denominator
Multiplier*Multiply both operands

Arithmetic Operators Code

int x = 5
int y = 4
int z = 0

x + y = 9
z = x + y // the variable z will now hold the number 9

x - y = 3

Comparison Operators

Operator NameOperator SymbolDescription
equal to ==Checks if the value of two operands is equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true.
greater than or equal to >=Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
greater than >Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
less than or equal to <=Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
less than <Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
not equal to !=Checks if the value of two operands is equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true.

Comparison Operators

int x = 5
int y = 4
int z = 0

x == y; // this will return the value False
x != y; // this will return the value True

Compound Operators

Operator NameOperator SymbolDescription
increment++Increment operator, increases integer value by one
decrement--Decrement operator, decreases integer value by one
compound addition+=Add AND assignment operator. It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand
compound substraction-=Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand
compound multiplier*=Multiply AND assignment operator. It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand
compound devider/=Divide AND assignment operator. It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand

Bitwise Operators

Operator NameOperator SymbolDescription
and&Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands.
or|Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand
xor^Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both.
not~Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits.
shift left<<Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand.
shift right>>Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.

Boolean Operators

Operator NameOperator SymbolDescription
and&&Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero then then condition becomes true.
or||Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero then then condition becomes true.
not!Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false.

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